# Coding Conventions¶

The code must be compatible with the oldest supported version of python as given on the Installation guide page.

## Importing modules¶

In code, like the implementation of ASE, we must not use the import * syntax. Import everything explicitly from exactly the place where it’s defined:

from ase.io import read, write


We distinguish between scripts and code. In your own scripts, it’s OK to use:

from ase.all import *


which will give you the most used symbols.

## Python Coding Conventions¶

The rules for the Python part are almost identical to those used by the Docutils project:

Contributed code will not be refused merely because it does not strictly adhere to these conditions; as long as it’s internally consistent, clean, and correct, it probably will be accepted. But don’t be surprised if the “offending” code gets fiddled over time to conform to these conventions.

The project shall follow the generic coding conventions as specified in the Style Guide for Python Code and Docstring Conventions PEPs, summarized, clarified, and extended as follows:

• 4 spaces per indentation level. No hard tabs.
• Very important: Read the Whitespace in Expressions and Statements section of PEP8.
• Avoid introducing trailing whitespaces.
• Try to use only 7-bit ASCII, no 8-bit strings.
• No one-liner compound statements (i.e., no if x: return: use two lines & indentation), except for degenerate class or method definitions (i.e., class X: pass is OK.).
• Lines should be no more than 78 characters long.
• Use “StudlyCaps” for class names.
• Use “lowercase” or “lowercase_with_underscores” for function, method, and variable names. For short names, maximum two words, joined lowercase may be used (e.g. “tagname”). For long names with three or more words, or where it’s hard to parse the split between two words, use lowercase_with_underscores (e.g., “note_explicit_target”, “explicit_target”). If in doubt, use underscores.
• Avoid lambda expressions, which are inherently difficult to understand. Named functions are preferable and superior: they’re faster (no run-time compilation), and well-chosen names serve to document and aid understanding.
• Avoid functional constructs (filter, map, etc.). Use list comprehensions instead.
• Avoid from __future__ import constructs. They are inappropriate for production code.
• Use ‘single quotes’ for string literals, and “”“triple double quotes”“” for docstrings. Double quotes are OK for something like "don't".

Attention

Thus spake the Lord: Thou shalt indent with four spaces. No more, no less. Four shall be the number of spaces thou shalt indent, and the number of thy indenting shall be four. Eight shalt thou not indent, nor either indent thou two, excepting that thou then proceed to four. Tabs are right out.

Georg Brandl

• Get rid of as many break and continue statements as possible.

## Writing documentation in the code¶

Here is an example of how to write good docstrings:

## Run pep8.py on your code¶

The pep8.py program is installed together with ASE tools/pep8.py. It will check the PEP8 conventions for you. Try:

$pep8.py --help ## Run autopep8.py on your code¶ Another method of enforcing PEP8 is using a tool such as autopep8.py. These tools tend to be very effective at cleaning up code, but should be used carefully and code should be retested after cleaning it. Try: $ autopep8.py --help

Attention

There is a common issue with pep8 where spaces are added around the power operator. Code such as “x**2” should not be changed to “x ** 2”. This issue is not fixed in pep8 as of the time of this writing, but a small change to autopep8 has been effective to prevent this change.

## Using pylint to check your code¶

A pylintrc trying to follow ASE Coding Conventions can be found here: doc/development/pylintrc

### Running pylint yourself¶

Run pylint on a single file like this:

[~]$pylint mypythonfile.py Run pylint on a module like this: [~]$ pylint path/to/module/root/dir

## Run epydoc on your code¶

Run:

\$ epydoc --docformat restructuredtext --parse-only --show-imports -v dir