RaspberryPi devices

This page describes how to install RaspberryPi devices.

OS download

Download an appropriate Raspberry_Pi_OS image. Read about the Legacy version of the Raspberry_Pi_OS based on the Debian Buster release.

Write OS to an SD card

A computer with an SD_card writer is required, see https://www.raspberrypi.com/software/

The sudo password or root superuser password will be required to write to disk devices.

On a Linux computer there are several tools:

  • The GNOME_disks GUI tool, start from CLI by:

    gnome-disks &

    Use the menu item Restore Disk Image…. This tool can unzip compressed images on-the-fly.

  • The CLI procedure can also used:

    • First identify the SD_card block device:


      For example, the SD_card device may be /dev/sdb.

    • If the SD_card already contains data, erase the card:

      sudo dd bs=4M if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdb oflag=sync status=progress

      This can take several minutes.

    • Unzip the image file with unxz, for example:

      unxz 2022-04-04-raspios-buster-armhf-lite.img.xz
    • Write the image file to the SD_card:

      sudo dd bs=4M if=/path/to/image of=/dev/sdb oflag=sync status=progress

      This can take several minutes.

OS updates

After booting the OS, update the Debian OS by:

sudo apt upgrade

Raspbian configuration

Several settings must be updated:

  • Keyboard layout

  • Date and NTP

  • Timezone

  • SSH server

In the Desktop version edit the Preferences. In the Lite version:

sudo raspi-config

SSH server

The SSH server is enabled in raspi-config under Interface options.

NTP client

The NTP configuration from DHCP is ignored. You have to configure the NTP server IP-address -in /etc/systemd/timesyncd.conf, for example:


and restart the service:

systemctl restart systemd-timesyncd

Apache web server

Install this package:

apt install apache2

This will start the web server on port 80 (HTTP).

Warning: Older versions of the Apache web server has critical security issues! Apache should be version 2.4.53 or newer, see https://httpd.apache.org/security/vulnerabilities_24.html. The Raspbian versions have these versions:

  • Bullseye: Apache version 2.4.53

  • Buster: Apache version 2.4.38 (insecure)