Source code for gpaw.external

"""This module defines different external potentials."""
import copy
import warnings
from typing import Callable, Dict, Optional

import numpy as np
from ase.units import Bohr, Ha

import _gpaw
from gpaw.typing import Array3D

__all__ = ['ConstantPotential', 'ConstantElectricField', 'CDFTPotential',
           'PointChargePotential', 'StepPotentialz',

known_potentials: Dict[str, Callable] = {}

def _register_known_potentials():
    from gpaw.bfield import BField
    known_potentials['CDFTPotential'] = lambda: None  # ???
    known_potentials['BField'] = BField
    for name in __all__:
        known_potentials[name] = globals()[name]

def create_external_potential(name, **kwargs):
    """Construct potential from dict."""
    if not known_potentials:
    return known_potentials[name](**kwargs)

class ExternalPotential:
    vext_g: Optional[Array3D] = None
    vext_q: Optional[Array3D] = None

    def get_potential(self, gd):
        """Get the potential on a regular 3-d grid.

        Will only call calculate_potential() the first time."""

        if self.vext_g is None:
            self.vext_g.flags.writeable = False
        return self.vext_g

    def get_potentialq(self, gd, pd3):
        """Get the potential on a regular 3-d grid in real space.

        Will only call calculate_potential() the first time."""

        if self.vext_q is None:
            vext_g = self.get_potential(gd)
            self.vext_q = pd3.fft(vext_g)
            self.vext_q.flags.writeable = False

        return self.vext_q

    def calculate_potential(self, gd) -> None:
        raise NotImplementedError

    def get_name(self) -> str:
        return self.__class__.__name__

    def update_potential_pw(self, ham, dens) -> float:
        v_q = self.get_potentialq(ham.finegd, ham.pd3).copy()
        eext = ham.pd3.integrate(v_q, dens.rhot_q, global_integral=False)
        dens.map23.add_to1(ham.vt_Q, v_q)
        ham.vt_sG[:] = ham.pd2.ifft(ham.vt_Q)
        if not ham.collinear:
            ham.vt_xG[1:] = 0.0
        return eext

    def update_atomic_hamiltonians_pw(self, ham, W_aL, dens) -> None:
        vext_q = self.get_potentialq(ham.finegd, ham.pd3)
        dens.ghat.integrate(ham.vHt_q + vext_q, W_aL)

    def paw_correction(self, Delta_p, dH_sp) -> None:

    def derivative_pw(self, ham, ghat_aLv, dens) -> None:
        vext_q = self.get_potentialq(ham.finegd, ham.pd3)
        dens.ghat.derivative(ham.vHt_q + vext_q, ghat_aLv)

class NoExternalPotential(ExternalPotential):
    vext_g = np.zeros((0, 0, 0))

    def __str__(self):
        return 'NoExternalPotential'

    def update_potential_pw(self, ham, dens) -> float:
        ham.vt_sG[:] = ham.pd2.ifft(ham.vt_Q)
        if not ham.collinear:
            ham.vt_xG[1:] = 0.0
        return 0.0

    def update_atomic_hamiltonians_pw(self, ham, W_aL, dens):
        dens.ghat.integrate(ham.vHt_q, W_aL)

    def derivative_pw(self, ham, ghat_aLv, dens):
        dens.ghat.derivative(ham.vHt_q, ghat_aLv)

class ConstantPotential(ExternalPotential):
    """Constant potential for tests."""
    def __init__(self, constant=1.0):
        self.constant = constant / Ha = 'ConstantPotential'

    def __str__(self):
        return 'Constant potential: {:.3f} V'.format(self.constant * Ha)

    def calculate_potential(self, gd):
        self.vext_g = gd.zeros() + self.constant

    def todict(self):
        return {'name':,
                'constant': self.constant * Ha}

[docs]class ConstantElectricField(ExternalPotential): def __init__(self, strength, direction=[0, 0, 1], tolerance=1e-7): """External constant electric field. strength: float Field strength in V/Ang. direction: vector Polarization direction. """ self.strength = strength * Bohr / Ha self.direction_v = np.array(direction, dtype=float) self.direction_v /= np.linalg.norm(self.direction_v) self.field_v = self.strength * self.direction_v self.tolerance = tolerance = 'ConstantElectricField' def __str__(self): return ('Constant electric field: ' '({:.3f}, {:.3f}, {:.3f}) V/Ang' .format(*(self.field_v * Ha / Bohr))) def calculate_potential(self, gd): # Note that PW-mode is periodic in all directions! L_c = abs(gd.cell_cv @ self.direction_v) # eps = self.tolerance # assert (L_c < eps).sum() == 2 center_v = 0.5 * gd.cell_cv.sum(0) r_gv = gd.get_grid_point_coordinates().transpose((1, 2, 3, 0)) f_g = (r_gv - center_v) @ self.direction_v # Set potential to zero at boundary of box (important for PW-mode). # Say we have 8 grid points. Instead of a potential like this: # # -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 # # we want: # # 0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 L = L_c.sum() f_g[abs(abs(f_g) - L / 2) < 1e-5] = 0.0 self.vext_g = f_g * self.strength def todict(self): return {'name':, 'strength': self.strength * Ha / Bohr, 'direction': self.direction_v}
class ProductPotential(ExternalPotential): def __init__(self, ext_i): self.ext_i = ext_i def calculate_potential(self, gd): self.vext_g = self.ext_i[0].get_potential(gd).copy() for ext in self.ext_i[1:]: self.vext_g *= ext.get_potential(gd) def __str__(self): return '\n'.join(['Product of potentials:'] + [ext.__str__() for ext in self.ext_i]) def todict(self): return {'name': self.__class__.__name__, 'ext_i': [ext.todict() for ext in self.ext_i]}
[docs]class PointChargePotential(ExternalPotential): def __init__(self, charges, positions=None, rc=0.2, rc2=np.inf, width=1.0): """Point-charge potential. charges: list of float Charges in units of `|e|`. positions: (N, 3)-shaped array-like of float Positions of charges in Angstrom. Can be set later. rc: float Inner cutoff for Coulomb potential in Angstrom. rc2: float Outer cutoff for Coulomb potential in Angstrom. width: float Width for cutoff function for Coulomb part. For r < rc, 1 / r is replaced by a third order polynomial in r^2 that has matching value, first derivative, second derivative and integral. For rc2 - width < r < rc2, 1 / r is multiplied by a smooth cutoff function (a third order polynomium in r). You can also give rc a negative value. In that case, this formula is used:: (r^4 - rc^4) / (r^5 - |rc|^5) for all values of r - no cutoff at rc2! """ self._dict = dict(name=self.__class__.__name__, charges=charges, positions=positions, rc=rc, rc2=rc2, width=width) self.q_p = np.ascontiguousarray(charges, float) self.rc = rc / Bohr self.rc2 = rc2 / Bohr self.width = width / Bohr if positions is not None: self.set_positions(positions) else: self.R_pv = None if abs(self.q_p).max() < 1e-14: warnings.warn('No charges!') if self.rc < 0. and self.rc2 < np.inf: warnings.warn('Long range cutoff chosen but will not be applied\ for negative inner cutoff values!') def todict(self): return copy.deepcopy(self._dict) def __str__(self): return ('Point-charge potential ' '(points: {}, cutoffs: {:.3f}, {:.3f}, {:.3f} Ang)' .format(len(self.q_p), self.rc * Bohr, (self.rc2 - self.width) * Bohr, self.rc2 * Bohr)) def set_positions(self, R_pv, com_pv=None): """Update positions.""" if com_pv is not None: self.com_pv = np.asarray(com_pv) / Bohr else: self.com_pv = None self.R_pv = np.asarray(R_pv) / Bohr self.vext_g = None def _molecule_distances(self, gd): if self.com_pv is not None: return self.com_pv - gd.cell_cv.sum(0) / 2 def calculate_potential(self, gd): assert gd.orthogonal self.vext_g = gd.zeros() dcom_pv = self._molecule_distances(gd) _gpaw.pc_potential(gd.beg_c, gd.h_cv.diagonal().copy(), self.q_p, self.R_pv, self.rc, self.rc2, self.width, self.vext_g, dcom_pv) def get_forces(self, calc): """Calculate forces from QM charge density on point-charges.""" dens = calc.density F_pv = np.zeros_like(self.R_pv) gd = dens.finegd dcom_pv = self._molecule_distances(gd) _gpaw.pc_potential(gd.beg_c, gd.h_cv.diagonal().copy(), self.q_p, self.R_pv, self.rc, self.rc2, self.width, self.vext_g, dcom_pv, dens.rhot_g, F_pv) gd.comm.sum(F_pv) return F_pv * Ha / Bohr
class CDFTPotential(ExternalPotential): # Dummy class to make cDFT compatible with new external # potential class ClassName(object): def __init__(self, regions, constraints, n_charge_regions, difference): = 'CDFTPotential' self.regions = regions self.constraints = constraints self.difference = difference self.n_charge_regions = n_charge_regions def todict(self): return {'name': 'CDFTPotential', # 'regions': self.indices_i, 'constraints': self.v_i * Ha, 'n_charge_regions': self.n_charge_regions, 'difference': self.difference, 'regions': self.regions}
[docs]class StepPotentialz(ExternalPotential): def __init__(self, zstep, value_left=0, value_right=0): """Step potential in z-direction zstep: float z-value that splits space into left and right [Angstrom] value_left: float Left side (z < zstep) potentential value [eV]. Default: 0 value_right: float Right side (z >= zstep) potentential value [eV]. Default: 0 """ self.value_left = value_left self.value_right = value_right = 'StepPotentialz' self.zstep = zstep def __str__(self): return 'Step potentialz: {0:.3f} V to {1:.3f} V at z={2}'.format( self.value_left, self.value_right, self.zstep) def calculate_potential(self, gd): r_vg = gd.get_grid_point_coordinates() self.vext_g = np.where(r_vg[2] < self.zstep / Bohr, gd.zeros() + self.value_left / Ha, gd.zeros() + self.value_right / Ha) def todict(self): return {'name':, 'value_left': self.value_left, 'value_right': self.value_right, 'zstep': self.zstep}
[docs]class PotentialCollection(ExternalPotential): def __init__(self, potentials): """Collection of external potentials to be applied potentials: list List of potentials """ self.potentials = [] for potential in potentials: if isinstance(potential, dict): potential = create_external_potential( potential.pop('name'), **potential) self.potentials.append(potential) def __str__(self): text = 'PotentialCollection:\n' for pot in self.potentials: text += ' ' + pot.__str__() + '\n' return text def calculate_potential(self, gd): self.potentials[0].calculate_potential(gd) self.vext_g = self.potentials[0].vext_g.copy() for pot in self.potentials[1:]: pot.calculate_potential(gd) self.vext_g += pot.vext_g def todict(self): return {'name': 'PotentialCollection', 'potentials': [pot.todict() for pot in self.potentials]}
def static_polarizability(atoms, strength=0.01): """Calculate polarizability tensor atoms: Atoms object strength: field strength in V/Ang Returns ------- polarizability tensor: Unit (e^2 Angstrom^2 / eV). Multiply with Bohr * Ha to get (Angstrom^3) """ atoms.get_potential_energy() calc = atoms.calc assert calc.parameters.external is None dipole_gs = calc.get_dipole_moment() alpha = np.zeros((3, 3)) for c in range(3): axes = np.zeros(3) axes[c] = 1 calc.set(external=ConstantElectricField(strength, axes)) calc.get_potential_energy() alpha[c] = (calc.get_dipole_moment() - dipole_gs) / strength calc.set(external=None) return alpha.T