Source code for gpaw.elph.electronphonon

r"""Module for calculating electron-phonon couplings.

Electron-phonon interaction::

                  \     l   +         +
        H      =   )   g   c   c   ( a   + a  ),
         el-ph    /_    ij  i   j     l     l

where the electron phonon coupling is given by::

             l       / hbar         ___
            g   =   /-------  < i | \ /  V   * e  | j > .
             ij   \/ 2 M w           'u   eff   l

Here, l denotes the vibrational mode, w_l and e_l is the frequency and
mass-scaled polarization vector, respectively, M is an effective mass, i, j are
electronic state indices and nabla_u denotes the gradient wrt atomic
displacements. The implementation supports calculations of the el-ph coupling
in both finite and periodic systems, i.e. expressed in a basis of molecular
orbitals or Bloch states.

The implementation is based on finite-difference calculations of the the atomic
gradients of the effective potential expressed on a real-space grid. The el-ph
couplings are obtained from LCAO representations of the atomic gradients of the
effective potential and the electronic states.

In PAW the matrix elements of the derivative of the effective potential is
given by the sum of the following contributions::

                  d                  d
            < i | -- V | j > = < i | -- V | j>
                  du  eff            du

                              \        ~a     d   .       ~a
                            +  ) < i | p  >   -- /_\H   < p | j >
                              /_        i     du     ij    j

                              \        d  ~a     .        ~a
                            +  ) < i | -- p  >  /_\H    < p | j >
                              /_       du  i        ij     j

                              \        ~a     .        d  ~a
                            +  ) < i | p  >  /_\H    < -- p  | j >
                              /_        i        ij    du  j

where the first term is the derivative of the potential (Hartree + XC) and the
last three terms originate from the PAW (pseudopotential) part of the effective
DFT Hamiltonian.

import numpy as np

import ase.units as units
from ase.parallel import parprint
from ase.phonons import Displacement
from ase.utils.filecache import MultiFileJSONCache

from gpaw.calculator import GPAW
from gpaw.kpt_descriptor import KPointDescriptor
from gpaw.lcao.tightbinding import TightBinding
from gpaw.utilities import unpack2
from import tri2full

# TODO replace parprint with something nicer
[docs]class ElectronPhononCoupling(Displacement): """Class for calculating the electron-phonon coupling in an LCAO basis. The derivative of the effective potential wrt atomic displacements is obtained from a finite difference approximation to the derivative by doing a self-consistent calculation for atomic displacements in the +/- directions. These calculations are carried out in the ``run`` member function. The subsequent calculation of the coupling matrix in the basis of atomic orbitals (or Bloch-sums hereof for periodic systems) is handled by the ``calculate_matrix`` member function. """ def __init__(self, atoms, calc=None, supercell=(1, 1, 1), name='elph', delta=0.01, calculate_forces=False): """Initialize with base class args and kwargs. Parameters ---------- atoms: Atoms The atoms to work on. calc: GPAW Calculator for the supercell finite displacement calculation. supercell: tuple, list Size of supercell given by the number of repetitions (l, m, n) of the small unit cell in each direction. name: str Name to use for files (default: 'elph'). delta: float Magnitude of displacements. calculate_forces: bool If true, also calculate and store the dynamical matrix. """ # Init base class and make the center cell in the supercell the # reference cell Displacement.__init__(self, atoms, calc=calc, supercell=supercell, name=name, delta=delta, center_refcell=True) self.calculate_forces = calculate_forces # LCAO calculator self.calc_lcao = None # Supercell matrix self.g_xsNNMM = None self.basis_info = None self.supercell_cache = None def calculate(self, atoms_N, disp): return self(atoms_N) def __call__(self, atoms_N): """Extract effective potential and projector coefficients.""" # Do calculation atoms_N.get_potential_energy() # Calculate forces if desired if self.calculate_forces: forces = atoms_N.get_forces() else: forces = None # Get calculator calc = atoms_N.calc if not isinstance(calc, GPAW): calc = calc.dft # unwrap DFTD3 wrapper # Effective potential (in Hartree) and projector coefficients Vt_sG = calc.hamiltonian.vt_sG Vt_sG =, broadcast=True) dH_asp = calc.hamiltonian.dH_asp setups = calc.wfs.setups nspins = calc.wfs.nspins gd_comm = dH_all_asp = {} for a, setup in enumerate(setups): ni = nii = ni * (ni + 1) // 2 dH_tmp_sp = np.zeros((nspins, nii)) if a in dH_asp: dH_tmp_sp[:] = dH_asp[a] gd_comm.sum(dH_tmp_sp) dH_all_asp[a] = dH_tmp_sp output = {'Vt_sG': Vt_sG, 'dH_all_asp': dH_all_asp} if forces is not None: output['forces'] = forces return output
[docs] def set_lcao_calculator(self, calc): """Set LCAO calculator for the calculation of the supercell matrix.""" assert calc.wfs.mode == 'lcao', 'LCAO mode required.' assert not calc.symmetry.point_group, \ 'Point group symmetry not supported' self.calc_lcao = calc
[docs] def set_basis_info(self, *args): """Store lcao basis info for atoms in reference cell in attribute. Parameters ---------- args: tuple If the LCAO calculator is not available (e.g. if the supercell is loaded from file), the ``load_supercell_matrix`` member function provides the required info as arguments. """ assert len(args) in (0, 2) if len(args) == 0: calc = self.calc_lcao setups = calc.wfs.setups bfs = calc.wfs.basis_functions nao_a = [setups[a].nao for a in range(len(self.atoms))] M_a = [bfs.M_a[a] for a in range(len(self.atoms))] else: M_a = args[0] nao_a = args[1] self.basis_info = {'M_a': M_a, 'nao_a': nao_a}
def _calculate_supercell_entry(self, a, v, V1t_sG, dH1_asp, wfs, include_pseudo): kpt_u = wfs.kpt_u setups = wfs.setups nao = setups.nao bfs = wfs.basis_functions dtype = wfs.dtype nspins = wfs.nspins # Equilibrium atomic Hamiltonian matrix (projector coefficients) dH_asp = self.cache['eq']['dH_all_asp'] # For the contribution from the derivative of the projectors dP_aqvMi = wfs.manytci.P_aqMi(self.indices, derivative=True) dP_qvMi = dP_aqvMi[a] # Array for different k-point components g_sqMM = np.zeros((nspins, len(kpt_u) // nspins, nao, nao), dtype) # 1) Gradient of effective potential parprint("Starting gradient of effective potential") for kpt in kpt_u: # Matrix elements geff_MM = np.zeros((nao, nao), dtype) bfs.calculate_potential_matrix(V1t_sG[kpt.s], geff_MM, q=kpt.q) tri2full(geff_MM, 'L') # Insert in array g_sqMM[kpt.s, kpt.q] += geff_MM parprint("Finished gradient of effective potential") if include_pseudo: parprint("Starting gradient of pseudo part") # 2) Gradient of non-local part (projectors) # parprint("Starting gradient of dH^a") P_aqMi = wfs.P_aqMi # 2a) dH^a part has contributions from all other atoms for kpt in kpt_u: # Matrix elements gp_MM = np.zeros((nao, nao), dtype) for a_, dH1_sp in dH1_asp.items(): dH1_ii = unpack2(dH1_sp[kpt.s]) P_Mi = P_aqMi[a_][kpt.q] gp_MM +=,, P_Mi.T.conjugate())) g_sqMM[kpt.s, kpt.q] += gp_MM # parprint("Finished gradient of dH^a") # parprint("Starting gradient of projectors") # 2b) dP^a part has only contributions from the same atoms dH_ii = unpack2(dH_asp[a][kpt.s]) for kpt in kpt_u: # XXX Sort out the sign here; conclusion -> sign = +1 ! P1HP_MM = +1 *[kpt.q][v],, P_aqMi[a][kpt.q].T.conjugate())) # Matrix elements gp_MM = P1HP_MM + P1HP_MM.T.conjugate() g_sqMM[kpt.s, kpt.q] += gp_MM # parprint("Finished gradient of projectors") parprint("Finished gradient of pseudo part") return g_sqMM
[docs] def calculate_supercell_matrix(self, name='supercell', filter=None, include_pseudo=True): """Calculate matrix elements of the el-ph coupling in the LCAO basis. This function calculates the matrix elements between LCAOs and local atomic gradients of the effective potential. The matrix elements are calculated for the supercell used to obtain finite-difference approximations to the derivatives of the effective potential wrt to atomic displacements. Parameters ---------- name: str User specified name of the generated JSON cache. Default is 'supercell'. filter: str Fourier filter atomic gradients of the effective potential. The specified components (``normal`` or ``umklapp``) are removed (default: None). include_pseudo: bool Include the contribution from the psedupotential in the atomic gradients. If ``False``, only the gradient of the effective potential is included (default: True). """ assert self.calc_lcao is not None, "Set LCAO calculator" # JSON cache self.supercell_cache = MultiFileJSONCache(name) # Supercell atoms atoms_N = self.atoms * self.supercell # Initialize calculator if required and extract useful quantities calc = self.calc_lcao if (not hasattr(calc.wfs, 'S_qMM') or not hasattr(calc.wfs.basis_functions, 'M_a')): calc.initialize(atoms_N) calc.initialize_positions(atoms_N) self.set_basis_info() # Extract useful objects from the calculator wfs = calc.wfs gd = kd = calc.wfs.kd setups = wfs.setups nao = setups.nao nspins = wfs.nspins # FIXME: Domain parallelisation broken assert gd.comm.size == 1 # If gamma calculation, overlap with neighboring cell cannot be removed if kd.gamma: print("WARNING: Gamma-point calculation.") else: # Bloch to real-space converter tb = TightBinding(atoms_N, calc) parprint("Calculating supercell matrix") parprint("Calculating real-space gradients") # Calculate finite-difference gradients (in Hartree / Bohr) V1t_xsG, dH1_xasp = self.calculate_gradient() parprint("Finished real-space gradients") # Fourier filter the atomic gradients of the effective potential if filter is not None: parprint("Fourier filtering gradients") for s in range(nspins): self.fourier_filter(V1t_xsG[:, s], components=filter) parprint("Finished Fourier filtering") # Check that the grid is the same as in the calculator assert np.all(V1t_xsG.shape[-3:] == (gd.N_c + gd.pbc_c - 1)), \ "Mismatch in grids." with self.supercell_cache.lock('basis') as handle: if handle is not None: # Calculate < i k | grad H | j k >, i.e. matrix elements in Bloch basis parprint("Calculating gradient of PAW Hamiltonian") # Do each cartesian component separately for i, a in enumerate(self.indices): for v in range(3): # Corresponding array index x = 3 * i + v # If exist already, don't recompute with self.supercell_cache.lock(str(x)) as handle: if handle is None: continue # parprint("Atom ", i+1, "/", len(self.indices), " , # direction ", v) parprint("%s-gradient of atom %u" % (['x', 'y', 'z'][v], a)) g_sqMM = self._calculate_supercell_entry(a, v, V1t_xsG[x], dH1_xasp[x], wfs, include_pseudo) # Extract R_c=(0, 0, 0) block by Fourier transforming if kd.gamma or kd.N_c is None: g_sMM = g_sqMM[:, 0] else: # Convert to array g_sMM = [] for s in range(nspins): g_MM = tb.bloch_to_real_space(g_sqMM[s], R_c=(0, 0, 0)) g_sMM.append(g_MM[0]) # [0] because of above g_sMM = np.array(g_sMM) # Reshape to global unit cell indices N = # Number of basis function in the primitive cell assert (nao % N) == 0, "Alarm ...!" nao_cell = nao // N g_sNMNM = g_sMM.reshape((nspins, N, nao_cell, N, nao_cell)) g_sNNMM = g_sNMNM.swapaxes(2, 3).copy() parprint("Finished supercell matrix") if x == 0: with self.supercell_cache.lock('info') as handle: if handle is not None:[g_sNNMM.shape,]) parprint("Finished gradient of PAW Hamiltonian")
[docs] def load_supercell_matrix(self, name='supercell'): """Load supercell matrix from cache. Parameters ---------- name: str User specified name of the cache. """ self.supercell_cache = MultiFileJSONCache(name) self.basis_info = self.supercell_cache['basis'] [shape, dtype] = self.supercell_cache['info'] nx = len(self.indices) * 3 self.g_xsNNMM = np.empty([nx, ] + list(shape), dtype=dtype) for x in range(nx): self.g_xsNNMM[x] = self.supercell_cache[str(x)]
[docs] def apply_cutoff(self, cutmax=None, cutmin=None): """Zero matrix element inside/beyond the specified cutoffs. This method is not tested. This method does not respect minimum image convention. Parameters ---------- cutmax: float Zero matrix elements for basis functions with a distance to the atomic gradient that is larger than the cutoff. cutmin: float Zero matrix elements where both basis functions have distances to the atomic gradient that is smaller than the cutoff. """ if cutmax is not None: cutmax = float(cutmax) if cutmin is not None: cutmin = float(cutmin) # Reference to supercell matrix attribute g_xsNNMM = self.g_xsNNMM # Number of atoms and primitive cells N_atoms = len(self.indices) N = nao = g_xsNNMM.shape[-1] nspins = g_xsNNMM.shape[1] # Reshape array g_avsNNMM = g_xsNNMM.reshape(N_atoms, 3, nspins, N, N, nao, nao) # Make slices for orbitals on atoms M_a = self.basis_info['M_a'] nao_a = self.basis_info['nao_a'] slice_a = [] for a in range(len(self.atoms)): start = M_a[a] stop = start + nao_a[a] s = slice(start, stop) slice_a.append(s) # Lattice vectors R_cN = self.compute_lattice_vectors() # Unit cell vectors cell_vc = self.atoms.cell.transpose() # Atomic positions in reference cell pos_av = self.atoms.get_positions() # Create a mask array to zero the relevant matrix elements if cutmin is not None: mask_avsNNMM = np.zeros(g_avsNNMM.shape, dtype=bool) # Zero elements where one of the basis orbitals has a distance to atoms # (atomic gradients) in the reference cell larger than the cutoff for n in range(N): # Lattice vector to cell R_v =, R_cN[:, n]) # Atomic positions in cell posn_av = pos_av + R_v for i, a in enumerate(self.indices): # Atomic distances wrt to the position of the gradient dist_a = np.sqrt(np.sum((pos_av[a] - posn_av)**2, axis=-1)) if cutmax is not None: # Atoms indices where the distance is larger than the max # cufoff j_a = np.where(dist_a > cutmax)[0] # Zero elements for j in j_a: g_avsNNMM[a, :, :, n, :, slice_a[j], :] = 0.0 g_avsNNMM[a, :, :, :, n, :, slice_a[j]] = 0.0 if cutmin is not None: # Atoms indices where the distance is larger than the min # cufoff j_a = np.where(dist_a > cutmin)[0] # Update mask to keep elements where one LCAO is outside # the min cutoff for j in j_a: mask_avsNNMM[a, :, :, n, :, slice_a[j], :] = True mask_avsNNMM[a, :, :, :, n, :, slice_a[j]] = True # Zero elements where both LCAOs are located within the min cutoff if cutmin is not None: g_avsNNMM[~mask_avsNNMM] = 0.0
[docs] def lcao_matrix(self, u_l, omega_l): """Calculate the el-ph coupling in the electronic LCAO basis. For now, only works for Gamma-point phonons. This method is not tested. Parameters ---------- u_l: np.ndarray Mass-scaled polarization vectors (in units of 1 / sqrt(amu)) of the phonons. omega_l: np.ndarray Vibrational frequencies in eV. """ # Supercell matrix (Hartree / Bohr) assert self.g_xsNNMM is not None, "Load supercell matrix." assert self.g_xsNNMM.shape[2:4] == (1, 1) g_xsMM = self.g_xsNNMM[:, :, 0, 0, :, :] # Number of atomic orbitals # nao = g_xMM.shape[-1] # Number of phonon modes nmodes = u_l.shape[0] # u_lx = u_l.reshape(nmodes, 3 * len(self.atoms)) # uses second to last index of second array g_lsMM =, g_xsMM.transpose(2, 0, 1, 3)) # Multiply prefactor sqrt(hbar / 2 * M * omega) in units of Bohr amu = units._amu # atomic mass unit me = units._me # electron mass g_lsMM /= np.sqrt(2 * amu / me / units.Hartree * omega_l[:, :, np.newaxis, np.newaxis]) # Convert to eV g_lsMM *= units.Hartree return g_lsMM
[docs] def bloch_matrix(self, kpts, qpts, c_kn, u_ql, omega_ql=None, kpts_from=None, spin=0, name='supercell'): r"""Calculate el-ph coupling in the Bloch basis for the electrons. This function calculates the electron-phonon coupling between the specified Bloch states, i.e.:: ______ mnl / hbar ^ g = /------- < m k + q | e . grad V | n k > kq \/ 2 M w ql q ql In case the ``omega_ql`` keyword argument is not given, the bare matrix element (in units of eV / Ang) without the sqrt prefactor is returned. Phonon frequencies and mode vectors must be given in ase units. Parameters ---------- kpts: np.ndarray or tuple k-vectors of the Bloch states. When a tuple of integers is given, a Monkhorst-Pack grid with the specified number of k-points along the directions of the reciprocal lattice vectors is generated. qpts: np.ndarray or tuple q-vectors of the phonons. c_kn: np.ndarray Expansion coefficients for the Bloch states. The ordering must be the same as in the ``kpts`` argument. u_ql: np.ndarray Mass-scaled polarization vectors (in units of 1 / sqrt(amu)) of the phonons. Again, the ordering must be the same as in the corresponding ``qpts`` argument. omega_ql: np.ndarray Vibrational frequencies in eV. kpts_from: list[int] or int Calculate only the matrix element for the k-vectors specified by their index in the ``kpts`` argument (default: all). spin: int In case of spin-polarised system, define which spin to use (0 or 1). """ assert len(c_kn.shape) == 3 assert len(u_ql.shape) == 4 if omega_ql is not None: assert np.all(u_ql.shape[:2] == omega_ql.shape[:2]) # Translate k-points into 1. BZ (required by ``find_k_plus_q``` member # function of the ```KPointDescriptor``). if isinstance(kpts, np.ndarray): assert kpts.shape[1] == 3, "kpts_kc array must be given" # XXX This does not seem to cause problems! kpts -= kpts.round() # Use the KPointDescriptor to keep track of the k and q-vectors kd_kpts = KPointDescriptor(kpts) kd_qpts = KPointDescriptor(qpts) # Check that number of k- and q-points agree with the number of Bloch # functions and polarization vectors assert kd_kpts.nbzkpts == len(c_kn) assert kd_qpts.nbzkpts == len(u_ql) # Include all k-point per default if kpts_from is None: kpts_kc = kd_kpts.bzk_kc kpts_k = range(kd_kpts.nbzkpts) else: kpts_kc = kd_kpts.bzk_kc[kpts_from] if isinstance(kpts_from, int): kpts_k = list([kpts_from]) else: kpts_k = list(kpts_from) # Number of phonon modes and electronic bands nmodes = u_ql.shape[1] nbands = c_kn.shape[1] # Number of atoms displacements and basis functions ndisp =[2:]) assert ndisp == (3 * len(self.indices)) nao = c_kn.shape[2] # Lattice vectors R_cN = self.compute_lattice_vectors() # Number of unit cell in supercell N = # Allocate array for couplings g_qklnn = np.zeros((kd_qpts.nbzkpts, len(kpts_kc), nmodes, nbands, nbands), dtype=complex) self.supercell_cache = MultiFileJSONCache(name) self.basis_info = self.supercell_cache['basis'] parprint("Calculating coupling matrix elements") for q, q_c in enumerate(kd_qpts.bzk_kc): # Find indices of k+q for the k-points kplusq_k = kd_kpts.find_k_plus_q(q_c, kpts_k=kpts_k) # Here, ``i`` is counting from 0 and ``k`` is the global index of # the k-point for i, (k, k_c) in enumerate(zip(kpts_k, kpts_kc)): # Check the wave vectors (adapted to the ``KPointDescriptor`` # class) kplusq_c = k_c + q_c kplusq_c -= kplusq_c.round() assert np.allclose(kplusq_c, kd_kpts.bzk_kc[kplusq_k[i]]), \ (i, k, k_c, q_c, kd_kpts.bzk_kc[kplusq_k[i]]) # LCAO coefficient for Bloch states ck_nM = c_kn[k] ckplusq_nM = c_kn[kplusq_k[i]] # Mass scaled polarization vectors u_lx = u_ql[q].reshape(nmodes, ndisp) # Multiply phase factors g_lnn = np.zeros((nmodes, nbands, nbands), dtype=complex) for x in range(ndisp): # Allocate array g_MM = np.zeros((nao, nao), dtype=complex) g_sNNMM = self.supercell_cache[str(x)] assert nao == g_sNNMM.shape[-1] for m in range(N): for n in range(N): phase = self._get_phase_factor(R_cN, m, n, k_c, q_c) # Sum contributions from different cells g_MM += g_sNNMM[spin, m, n, :, :] * phase g_nn =,, ck_nM.T)) # not sure if einsum is faster or slower # g_nn = np.einsum('ij,jk,kl->il',ckplusq_nM.conj(), # g_MM, ck_nM.T) # g_lnn += np.outer(u_lx[:,x],g_nn).reshape(nmodes, # nbands, nbands) g_lnn += np.einsum('i,kl->ikl', u_lx[:, x], g_nn) # Insert value g_qklnn[q, i] = g_lnn # XXX Temp if np.all(q_c == 0.0): # These should be real. Problem is... they are usually not print(g_qklnn[q].imag.min(), g_qklnn[q].imag.max()) parprint("Finished calculation of coupling matrix elements") # Return the bare matrix element if frequencies are not given if omega_ql is None: # Convert to eV / Ang g_qklnn *= units.Hartree / units.Bohr else: # Multiply prefactor sqrt(hbar / 2 * M * omega) in units of Bohr amu = units._amu # atomic mass unit me = units._me # electron mass g_qklnn /= np.sqrt(2 * amu / me / units.Hartree * omega_ql[:, np.newaxis, :, np.newaxis, np.newaxis]) # Convert to eV g_qklnn *= units.Hartree # Return couplings in eV (or eV / Ang) return g_qklnn
[docs] def fourier_filter(self, V1t_xG, components='normal', criteria=0): """Fourier filter atomic gradients of the effective potential. This method is not tested. Parameters ---------- V1t_xG: np.ndarray Array representation of atomic gradients of the effective potential in the supercell grid. components: str Fourier components to filter out (``normal`` or ``umklapp``). """ import numpy.fft as fft import numpy.linalg as la assert components in ['normal', 'umklapp'] # Grid shape shape = V1t_xG.shape[-3:] # Primitive unit cells in Bohr/Bohr^-1 cell_cv = self.atoms.get_cell() / units.Bohr reci_vc = 2 * np.pi * la.inv(cell_cv) norm_c = np.sqrt(np.sum(reci_vc**2, axis=0)) # Periodic BC array pbc_c = np.array(self.atoms.get_pbc(), dtype=bool) # Supercell atoms and cell atoms_N = self.atoms * self.supercell supercell_cv = atoms_N.get_cell() / units.Bohr # q-grid in units of the grid spacing (FFT ordering) q_cG = np.indices(shape).reshape(3, -1) q_c = np.array(shape)[:, np.newaxis] q_cG += q_c // 2 q_cG %= q_c q_cG -= q_c // 2 # Locate q-points inside the Brillouin zone if criteria == 0: # Works for all cases # Grid spacing in direction of reciprocal lattice vectors h_c = np.sqrt(np.sum((2 * np.pi * la.inv(supercell_cv))**2, axis=0)) # XXX Why does a "*=" operation on q_cG not work here ?? q1_cG = q_cG * h_c[:, np.newaxis] / (norm_c[:, np.newaxis] / 2) mask_G = np.ones(, dtype=bool) for i, pbc in enumerate(pbc_c): if not pbc: continue mask_G &= (-1. < q1_cG[i]) & (q1_cG[i] <= 1.) else: # 2D hexagonal lattice # Projection of q points onto the periodic directions. Only in # these directions do normal and umklapp processees make sense. q_vG =[pbc_c].T, 2 * np.pi * la.inv(supercell_cv).T[pbc_c]).T.copy() # Parametrize the BZ boundary in terms of the angle theta theta_G = np.arctan2(q_vG[1], q_vG[0]) % (np.pi / 3) phi_G = np.pi / 6 - np.abs(theta_G) qmax_G = norm_c[0] / 2 / np.cos(phi_G) norm_G = np.sqrt(np.sum(q_vG**2, axis=0)) # Includes point on BZ boundary with +1e-2 mask_G = (norm_G <= qmax_G + 1e-2) if components != 'normal': mask_G = ~mask_G # Reshape to grid shape mask_G.shape = shape for V1t_G in V1t_xG: # Fourier transform atomic gradient V1tq_G = fft.fftn(V1t_G) # Zero normal/umklapp components V1tq_G[mask_G] = 0.0 # Fourier transform back V1t_G[:] = fft.ifftn(V1tq_G).real
[docs] def calculate_gradient(self): """Calculate gradient of effective potential and projector coefs. This function loads the generated pickle files and calculates finite-difference derivatives. """ # Array and dict for finite difference derivatives V1t_xsG = [] dH1_xasp = [] x = 0 for a in self.indices: for v in 'xyz': # Note: currently ignored in ase.phonon # name = '%s.%d%s' % (, a, v) name = '%d%s' % (a, v) # Potential and atomic density matrix for atomic displacement Vtm_sG = self.cache[name + '-']['Vt_sG'] dHm_asp = self.cache[name + '-']['dH_all_asp'] Vtp_sG = self.cache[name + '+']['Vt_sG'] dHp_asp = self.cache[name + '+']['dH_all_asp'] # FD derivatives in Hartree / Bohr V1t_sG = (Vtp_sG - Vtm_sG) / (2 * / units.Bohr) V1t_xsG.append(V1t_sG) dH1_asp = {} for atom in dHm_asp.keys(): dH1_asp[atom] = (dHp_asp[atom] - dHm_asp[atom]) / \ (2 * / units.Bohr) dH1_xasp.append(dH1_asp) x += 1 return np.array(V1t_xsG), dH1_xasp
def _get_phase_factor(self, R_cN, m, n, k_c, q_c): Rm_c = R_cN[:, m] Rn_c = R_cN[:, n] phase = np.exp(2.j * np.pi * (, Rm_c - Rn_c) +, Rm_c))) return phase