Source code for ase.neighborlist

import numpy as np
import itertools
from scipy import sparse as sp
from scipy.spatial import cKDTree

from ase.data import atomic_numbers, covalent_radii
from ase.geometry import complete_cell, find_mic, wrap_positions
from ase.geometry import minkowski_reduce
from ase.cell import Cell


[docs]def natural_cutoffs(atoms, mult=1, **kwargs): """Generate a radial cutoff for every atom based on covalent radii. The covalent radii are a reasonable cutoff estimation for bonds in many applications such as neighborlists, so function generates an atoms length list of radii based on this idea. * atoms: An atoms object * mult: A multiplier for all cutoffs, useful for coarse grained adjustment * kwargs: Symbol of the atom and its corresponding cutoff, used to override the covalent radii """ return [kwargs.get(atom.symbol, covalent_radii[atom.number] * mult) for atom in atoms]
[docs]def build_neighbor_list(atoms, cutoffs=None, **kwargs): """Automatically build and update a NeighborList. Parameters: atoms : :class:`~ase.Atoms` object Atoms to build Neighborlist for. cutoffs: list of floats Radii for each atom. If not given it will be produced by calling :func:`ase.neighborlist.natural_cutoffs` kwargs: arbitrary number of options Will be passed to the constructor of :class:`~ase.neighborlist.NeighborList` Returns: return: :class:`~ase.neighborlist.NeighborList` A :class:`~ase.neighborlist.NeighborList` instance (updated). """ if cutoffs is None: cutoffs = natural_cutoffs(atoms) nl = NeighborList(cutoffs, **kwargs) nl.update(atoms) return nl
[docs]def get_distance_matrix(graph, limit=3): """Get Distance Matrix from a Graph. Parameters: graph: array, matrix or sparse matrix, 2 dimensions (N, N) Graph representation of the connectivity. See `scipy doc <https://docs.scipy.org/doc/scipy/reference/generated/scipy.sparse.csgraph.dijkstra.html#scipy.sparse.csgraph.dijkstra>`_ for reference. limit: integer Maximum number of steps to analyze. For most molecular information, three should be enough. Returns: return: scipy.sparse.csr_matrix, shape (N, N) A scipy.sparse.csr_matrix. All elements that are not connected within *limit* steps are set to zero. This is a potential memory bottleneck, as csgraph.dijkstra produces a dense output matrix. Here we replace all np.inf values with 0 and transform back to csr_matrix. Why not dok_matrix like the connectivity-matrix? Because row-picking is most likely and this is super fast with csr. """ mat = sp.csgraph.dijkstra(graph, directed=False, limit=limit) mat[mat == np.inf] = 0 return sp.csr_matrix(mat, dtype=np.int8)
[docs]def get_distance_indices(distanceMatrix, distance): """Get indices for each node that are distance or less away. Parameters: distanceMatrix: any one of scipy.sparse matrices (NxN) Matrix containing distance information of atoms. Get it e.g. with :func:`~ase.neighborlist.get_distance_matrix` distance: integer Number of steps to allow. Returns: return: list of length N A list of length N. return[i] has all indices that are connected to item i. The distance matrix only contains shortest paths, so when looking for distances longer than one, we need to add the lower values for cases where atoms are connected via a shorter path too. """ shape = distanceMatrix.get_shape() indices = [] #iterate over rows for i in range(shape[0]): row = distanceMatrix.getrow(i)[0] #find all non-zero found = sp.find(row) #screen for smaller or equal distance equal = np.where( found[-1] <= distance )[0] #found[1] contains the indexes indices.append([ found[1][x] for x in equal ]) return indices
[docs]def mic(dr, cell, pbc=True): """ Apply minimum image convention to an array of distance vectors. Parameters: dr : array_like Array of distance vectors. cell : array_like Simulation cell. pbc : array_like, optional Periodic boundary conditions in x-, y- and z-direction. Default is to assume periodic boundaries in all directions. Returns: dr : array Array of distance vectors, wrapped according to the minimum image convention. """ dr, _ = find_mic(dr, cell, pbc) return dr
[docs]def primitive_neighbor_list(quantities, pbc, cell, positions, cutoff, numbers=None, self_interaction=False, use_scaled_positions=False, max_nbins=1e6): """Compute a neighbor list for an atomic configuration. Atoms outside periodic boundaries are mapped into the box. Atoms outside nonperiodic boundaries are included in the neighbor list but complexity of neighbor list search for those can become n^2. The neighbor list is sorted by first atom index 'i', but not by second atom index 'j'. Parameters: quantities: str Quantities to compute by the neighbor list algorithm. Each character in this string defines a quantity. They are returned in a tuple of the same order. Possible quantities are * 'i' : first atom index * 'j' : second atom index * 'd' : absolute distance * 'D' : distance vector * 'S' : shift vector (number of cell boundaries crossed by the bond between atom i and j). With the shift vector S, the distances D between atoms can be computed from: D = positions[j]-positions[i]+S.dot(cell) pbc: array_like 3-tuple indicating giving periodic boundaries in the three Cartesian directions. cell: 3x3 matrix Unit cell vectors. positions: list of xyz-positions Atomic positions. Anything that can be converted to an ndarray of shape (n, 3) will do: [(x1,y1,z1), (x2,y2,z2), ...]. If use_scaled_positions is set to true, this must be scaled positions. cutoff: float or dict Cutoff for neighbor search. It can be: * A single float: This is a global cutoff for all elements. * A dictionary: This specifies cutoff values for element pairs. Specification accepts element numbers of symbols. Example: {(1, 6): 1.1, (1, 1): 1.0, ('C', 'C'): 1.85} * A list/array with a per atom value: This specifies the radius of an atomic sphere for each atoms. If spheres overlap, atoms are within each others neighborhood. See :func:`~ase.neighborlist.natural_cutoffs` for an example on how to get such a list. self_interaction: bool Return the atom itself as its own neighbor if set to true. Default: False use_scaled_positions: bool If set to true, positions are expected to be scaled positions. max_nbins: int Maximum number of bins used in neighbor search. This is used to limit the maximum amount of memory required by the neighbor list. Returns: i, j, ... : array Tuple with arrays for each quantity specified above. Indices in `i` are returned in ascending order 0..len(a)-1, but the order of (i,j) pairs is not guaranteed. """ # Naming conventions: Suffixes indicate the dimension of an array. The # following convention is used here: # c: Cartesian index, can have values 0, 1, 2 # i: Global atom index, can have values 0..len(a)-1 # xyz: Bin index, three values identifying x-, y- and z-component of a # spatial bin that is used to make neighbor search O(n) # b: Linearized version of the 'xyz' bin index # a: Bin-local atom index, i.e. index identifying an atom *within* a # bin # p: Pair index, can have value 0 or 1 # n: (Linear) neighbor index # Return empty neighbor list if no atoms are passed here if len(positions) == 0: empty_types = dict(i=(np.int, (0, )), j=(np.int, (0, )), D=(np.float, (0, 3)), d=(np.float, (0, )), S=(np.int, (0, 3))) retvals = [] for i in quantities: dtype, shape = empty_types[i] retvals += [np.array([], dtype=dtype).reshape(shape)] if len(retvals) == 1: return retvals[0] else: return tuple(retvals) # Compute reciprocal lattice vectors. b1_c, b2_c, b3_c = np.linalg.pinv(cell).T # Compute distances of cell faces. l1 = np.linalg.norm(b1_c) l2 = np.linalg.norm(b2_c) l3 = np.linalg.norm(b3_c) face_dist_c = np.array([1 / l1 if l1 > 0 else 1, 1 / l2 if l2 > 0 else 1, 1 / l3 if l3 > 0 else 1]) if isinstance(cutoff, dict): max_cutoff = max(cutoff.values()) else: if np.isscalar(cutoff): max_cutoff = cutoff else: cutoff = np.asarray(cutoff) max_cutoff = 2*np.max(cutoff) # We use a minimum bin size of 3 A bin_size = max(max_cutoff, 3) # Compute number of bins such that a sphere of radius cutoff fit into eight # neighboring bins. nbins_c = np.maximum((face_dist_c / bin_size).astype(int), [1, 1, 1]) nbins = np.prod(nbins_c) # Make sure we limit the amount of memory used by the explicit bins. while nbins > max_nbins: nbins_c = np.maximum(nbins_c // 2, [1, 1, 1]) nbins = np.prod(nbins_c) # Compute over how many bins we need to loop in the neighbor list search. neigh_search_x, neigh_search_y, neigh_search_z = \ np.ceil(bin_size * nbins_c / face_dist_c).astype(int) # Sort atoms into bins. if use_scaled_positions: scaled_positions_ic = positions positions = np.dot(scaled_positions_ic, cell) else: scaled_positions_ic = np.linalg.solve(complete_cell(cell).T, positions.T).T bin_index_ic = np.floor(scaled_positions_ic*nbins_c).astype(int) cell_shift_ic = np.zeros_like(bin_index_ic) for c in range(3): if pbc[c]: # (Note: np.divmod does not exist in older numpies) cell_shift_ic[:, c], bin_index_ic[:, c] = \ divmod(bin_index_ic[:, c], nbins_c[c]) else: bin_index_ic[:, c] = np.clip(bin_index_ic[:, c], 0, nbins_c[c]-1) # Convert Cartesian bin index to unique scalar bin index. bin_index_i = (bin_index_ic[:, 0] + nbins_c[0] * (bin_index_ic[:, 1] + nbins_c[1] * bin_index_ic[:, 2])) # atom_i contains atom index in new sort order. atom_i = np.argsort(bin_index_i) bin_index_i = bin_index_i[atom_i] # Find max number of atoms per bin max_natoms_per_bin = np.bincount(bin_index_i).max() # Sort atoms into bins: atoms_in_bin_ba contains for each bin (identified # by its scalar bin index) a list of atoms inside that bin. This list is # homogeneous, i.e. has the same size *max_natoms_per_bin* for all bins. # The list is padded with -1 values. atoms_in_bin_ba = -np.ones([nbins, max_natoms_per_bin], dtype=int) for i in range(max_natoms_per_bin): # Create a mask array that identifies the first atom of each bin. mask = np.append([True], bin_index_i[:-1] != bin_index_i[1:]) # Assign all first atoms. atoms_in_bin_ba[bin_index_i[mask], i] = atom_i[mask] # Remove atoms that we just sorted into atoms_in_bin_ba. The next # "first" atom will be the second and so on. mask = np.logical_not(mask) atom_i = atom_i[mask] bin_index_i = bin_index_i[mask] # Make sure that all atoms have been sorted into bins. assert len(atom_i) == 0 assert len(bin_index_i) == 0 # Now we construct neighbor pairs by pairing up all atoms within a bin or # between bin and neighboring bin. atom_pairs_pn is a helper buffer that # contains all potential pairs of atoms between two bins, i.e. it is a list # of length max_natoms_per_bin**2. atom_pairs_pn = np.indices((max_natoms_per_bin, max_natoms_per_bin), dtype=int) atom_pairs_pn = atom_pairs_pn.reshape(2, -1) # Initialized empty neighbor list buffers. first_at_neightuple_nn = [] secnd_at_neightuple_nn = [] cell_shift_vector_x_n = [] cell_shift_vector_y_n = [] cell_shift_vector_z_n = [] # This is the main neighbor list search. We loop over neighboring bins and # then construct all possible pairs of atoms between two bins, assuming # that each bin contains exactly max_natoms_per_bin atoms. We then throw # out pairs involving pad atoms with atom index -1 below. binz_xyz, biny_xyz, binx_xyz = np.meshgrid(np.arange(nbins_c[2]), np.arange(nbins_c[1]), np.arange(nbins_c[0]), indexing='ij') # The memory layout of binx_xyz, biny_xyz, binz_xyz is such that computing # the respective bin index leads to a linearly increasing consecutive list. # The following assert statement succeeds: # b_b = (binx_xyz + nbins_c[0] * (biny_xyz + nbins_c[1] * # binz_xyz)).ravel() # assert (b_b == np.arange(np.prod(nbins_c))).all() # First atoms in pair. _first_at_neightuple_n = atoms_in_bin_ba[:, atom_pairs_pn[0]] for dz in range(-neigh_search_z, neigh_search_z+1): for dy in range(-neigh_search_y, neigh_search_y+1): for dx in range(-neigh_search_x, neigh_search_x+1): # Bin index of neighboring bin and shift vector. shiftx_xyz, neighbinx_xyz = divmod(binx_xyz + dx, nbins_c[0]) shifty_xyz, neighbiny_xyz = divmod(biny_xyz + dy, nbins_c[1]) shiftz_xyz, neighbinz_xyz = divmod(binz_xyz + dz, nbins_c[2]) neighbin_b = (neighbinx_xyz + nbins_c[0] * (neighbiny_xyz + nbins_c[1] * neighbinz_xyz) ).ravel() # Second atom in pair. _secnd_at_neightuple_n = \ atoms_in_bin_ba[neighbin_b][:, atom_pairs_pn[1]] # Shift vectors. _cell_shift_vector_x_n = \ np.resize(shiftx_xyz.reshape(-1, 1), (max_natoms_per_bin**2, shiftx_xyz.size)).T _cell_shift_vector_y_n = \ np.resize(shifty_xyz.reshape(-1, 1), (max_natoms_per_bin**2, shifty_xyz.size)).T _cell_shift_vector_z_n = \ np.resize(shiftz_xyz.reshape(-1, 1), (max_natoms_per_bin**2, shiftz_xyz.size)).T # We have created too many pairs because we assumed each bin # has exactly max_natoms_per_bin atoms. Remove all surperfluous # pairs. Those are pairs that involve an atom with index -1. mask = np.logical_and(_first_at_neightuple_n != -1, _secnd_at_neightuple_n != -1) if mask.sum() > 0: first_at_neightuple_nn += [_first_at_neightuple_n[mask]] secnd_at_neightuple_nn += [_secnd_at_neightuple_n[mask]] cell_shift_vector_x_n += [_cell_shift_vector_x_n[mask]] cell_shift_vector_y_n += [_cell_shift_vector_y_n[mask]] cell_shift_vector_z_n += [_cell_shift_vector_z_n[mask]] # Flatten overall neighbor list. first_at_neightuple_n = np.concatenate(first_at_neightuple_nn) secnd_at_neightuple_n = np.concatenate(secnd_at_neightuple_nn) cell_shift_vector_n = np.transpose([np.concatenate(cell_shift_vector_x_n), np.concatenate(cell_shift_vector_y_n), np.concatenate(cell_shift_vector_z_n)]) # Add global cell shift to shift vectors cell_shift_vector_n += cell_shift_ic[first_at_neightuple_n] - \ cell_shift_ic[secnd_at_neightuple_n] # Remove all self-pairs that do not cross the cell boundary. if not self_interaction: m = np.logical_not(np.logical_and( first_at_neightuple_n == secnd_at_neightuple_n, (cell_shift_vector_n == 0).all(axis=1))) first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[m] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[m] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[m] # For nonperiodic directions, remove any bonds that cross the domain # boundary. for c in range(3): if not pbc[c]: m = cell_shift_vector_n[:, c] == 0 first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[m] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[m] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[m] # Sort neighbor list. i = np.argsort(first_at_neightuple_n) first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[i] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[i] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[i] # Compute distance vectors. distance_vector_nc = positions[secnd_at_neightuple_n] - \ positions[first_at_neightuple_n] + \ cell_shift_vector_n.dot(cell) abs_distance_vector_n = \ np.sqrt(np.sum(distance_vector_nc*distance_vector_nc, axis=1)) # We have still created too many pairs. Only keep those with distance # smaller than max_cutoff. mask = abs_distance_vector_n < max_cutoff first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[mask] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[mask] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[mask] distance_vector_nc = distance_vector_nc[mask] abs_distance_vector_n = abs_distance_vector_n[mask] if isinstance(cutoff, dict) and numbers is not None: # If cutoff is a dictionary, then the cutoff radii are specified per # element pair. We now have a list up to maximum cutoff. per_pair_cutoff_n = np.zeros_like(abs_distance_vector_n) for (atomic_number1, atomic_number2), c in cutoff.items(): try: atomic_number1 = atomic_numbers[atomic_number1] except KeyError: pass try: atomic_number2 = atomic_numbers[atomic_number2] except KeyError: pass if atomic_number1 == atomic_number2: mask = np.logical_and( numbers[first_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number1, numbers[secnd_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number2) else: mask = np.logical_or( np.logical_and( numbers[first_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number1, numbers[secnd_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number2), np.logical_and( numbers[first_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number2, numbers[secnd_at_neightuple_n] == atomic_number1)) per_pair_cutoff_n[mask] = c mask = abs_distance_vector_n < per_pair_cutoff_n first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[mask] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[mask] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[mask] distance_vector_nc = distance_vector_nc[mask] abs_distance_vector_n = abs_distance_vector_n[mask] elif not np.isscalar(cutoff): # If cutoff is neither a dictionary nor a scalar, then we assume it is # a list or numpy array that contains atomic radii. Atoms are neighbors # if their radii overlap. mask = abs_distance_vector_n < \ cutoff[first_at_neightuple_n] + cutoff[secnd_at_neightuple_n] first_at_neightuple_n = first_at_neightuple_n[mask] secnd_at_neightuple_n = secnd_at_neightuple_n[mask] cell_shift_vector_n = cell_shift_vector_n[mask] distance_vector_nc = distance_vector_nc[mask] abs_distance_vector_n = abs_distance_vector_n[mask] # Assemble return tuple. retvals = [] for q in quantities: if q == 'i': retvals += [first_at_neightuple_n] elif q == 'j': retvals += [secnd_at_neightuple_n] elif q == 'D': retvals += [distance_vector_nc] elif q == 'd': retvals += [abs_distance_vector_n] elif q == 'S': retvals += [cell_shift_vector_n] else: raise ValueError('Unsupported quantity specified.') if len(retvals) == 1: return retvals[0] else: return tuple(retvals)
[docs]def neighbor_list(quantities, a, cutoff, self_interaction=False, max_nbins=1e6): """Compute a neighbor list for an atomic configuration. Atoms outside periodic boundaries are mapped into the box. Atoms outside nonperiodic boundaries are included in the neighbor list but complexity of neighbor list search for those can become n^2. The neighbor list is sorted by first atom index 'i', but not by second atom index 'j'. Parameters: quantities: str Quantities to compute by the neighbor list algorithm. Each character in this string defines a quantity. They are returned in a tuple of the same order. Possible quantities are: * 'i' : first atom index * 'j' : second atom index * 'd' : absolute distance * 'D' : distance vector * 'S' : shift vector (number of cell boundaries crossed by the bond between atom i and j). With the shift vector S, the distances D between atoms can be computed from: D = a.positions[j]-a.positions[i]+S.dot(a.cell) a: :class:`ase.Atoms` Atomic configuration. cutoff: float or dict Cutoff for neighbor search. It can be: * A single float: This is a global cutoff for all elements. * A dictionary: This specifies cutoff values for element pairs. Specification accepts element numbers of symbols. Example: {(1, 6): 1.1, (1, 1): 1.0, ('C', 'C'): 1.85} * A list/array with a per atom value: This specifies the radius of an atomic sphere for each atoms. If spheres overlap, atoms are within each others neighborhood. See :func:`~ase.neighborlist.natural_cutoffs` for an example on how to get such a list. self_interaction: bool Return the atom itself as its own neighbor if set to true. Default: False max_nbins: int Maximum number of bins used in neighbor search. This is used to limit the maximum amount of memory required by the neighbor list. Returns: i, j, ...: array Tuple with arrays for each quantity specified above. Indices in `i` are returned in ascending order 0..len(a), but the order of (i,j) pairs is not guaranteed. Examples: Examples assume Atoms object *a* and numpy imported as *np*. 1. Coordination counting:: i = neighbor_list('i', a, 1.85) coord = np.bincount(i) 2. Coordination counting with different cutoffs for each pair of species:: i = neighbor_list('i', a, {('H', 'H'): 1.1, ('C', 'H'): 1.3, ('C', 'C'): 1.85}) coord = np.bincount(i) 3. Pair distribution function:: d = neighbor_list('d', a, 10.00) h, bin_edges = np.histogram(d, bins=100) pdf = h/(4*np.pi/3*(bin_edges[1:]**3 - bin_edges[:-1]**3)) * a.get_volume()/len(a) 4. Pair potential:: i, j, d, D = neighbor_list('ijdD', a, 5.0) energy = (-C/d**6).sum() pair_forces = (6*C/d**5 * (D/d).T).T forces_x = np.bincount(j, weights=pair_forces[:, 0], minlength=len(a)) - \ np.bincount(i, weights=pair_forces[:, 0], minlength=len(a)) forces_y = np.bincount(j, weights=pair_forces[:, 1], minlength=len(a)) - \ np.bincount(i, weights=pair_forces[:, 1], minlength=len(a)) forces_z = np.bincount(j, weights=pair_forces[:, 2], minlength=len(a)) - \ np.bincount(i, weights=pair_forces[:, 2], minlength=len(a)) 5. Dynamical matrix for a pair potential stored in a block sparse format:: from scipy.sparse import bsr_matrix i, j, dr, abs_dr = neighbor_list('ijDd', atoms) energy = (dr.T / abs_dr).T dynmat = -(dde * (energy.reshape(-1, 3, 1) * energy.reshape(-1, 1, 3)).T).T \ -(de / abs_dr * (np.eye(3, dtype=energy.dtype) - \ (energy.reshape(-1, 3, 1) * energy.reshape(-1, 1, 3))).T).T dynmat_bsr = bsr_matrix((dynmat, j, first_i), shape=(3*len(a), 3*len(a))) dynmat_diag = np.empty((len(a), 3, 3)) for x in range(3): for y in range(3): dynmat_diag[:, x, y] = -np.bincount(i, weights=dynmat[:, x, y]) dynmat_bsr += bsr_matrix((dynmat_diag, np.arange(len(a)), np.arange(len(a) + 1)), shape=(3 * len(a), 3 * len(a))) """ return primitive_neighbor_list(quantities, a.pbc, a.get_cell(complete=True), a.positions, cutoff, numbers=a.numbers, self_interaction=self_interaction, max_nbins=max_nbins)
[docs]def first_neighbors(natoms, first_atom): """ Compute an index array pointing to the ranges within the neighbor list that contain the neighbors for a certain atom. Parameters: natoms : int Total number of atom. first_atom : array_like Array containing the first atom 'i' of the neighbor tuple returned by the neighbor list. Returns: seed : array Array containing pointers to the start and end location of the neighbors of a certain atom. Neighbors of atom k have indices from s[k] to s[k+1]-1. """ if len(first_atom) == 0: return np.zeros(natoms+1, dtype=int) # Create a seed array (which is returned by this function) populated with # -1. seed = -np.ones(natoms+1, dtype=int) first_atom = np.asarray(first_atom) # Mask array contains all position where the number in the (sorted) array # with first atoms (in the neighbor pair) changes. mask = first_atom[:-1] != first_atom[1:] # Seed array needs to start at 0 seed[first_atom[0]] = 0 # Seed array needs to stop at the length of the neighbor list seed[-1] = len(first_atom) # Populate all intermediate seed with the index of where the mask array is # true, i.e. the index where the first_atom array changes. seed[first_atom[1:][mask]] = (np.arange(len(mask))+1)[mask] # Now fill all remaining -1 value with the value in the seed array right # behind them. (There are no neighbor so seed[i] and seed[i+1] must point) # to the same index. mask = seed == -1 while mask.any(): seed[mask] = seed[np.arange(natoms+1)[mask]+1] mask = seed == -1 return seed
[docs]def get_connectivity_matrix(nl, sparse=True): """Return connectivity matrix for a given NeighborList (dtype=numpy.int8). A matrix of shape (nAtoms, nAtoms) will be returned. Connected atoms i and j will have matrix[i,j] == 1, unconnected matrix[i,j] == 0. If bothways=True the matrix will be symmetric, otherwise not! If *sparse* is True, a scipy csr matrix is returned. If *sparse* is False, a numpy matrix is returned. Note that the old and new neighborlists might give different results for periodic systems if bothways=False. Example: Determine which molecule in a system atom 1 belongs to. >>> from ase import neighborlist >>> from ase.build import molecule >>> from scipy import sparse >>> mol = molecule('CH3CH2OH') >>> cutOff = neighborlist.natural_cutoffs(mol) >>> neighborList = neighborlist.NeighborList(cutOff, self_interaction=False, bothways=True) >>> neighborList.update(mol) >>> matrix = neighborList.get_connectivity_matrix() >>> #or: matrix = neighborlist.get_connectivity_matrix(neighborList.nl) >>> n_components, component_list = sparse.csgraph.connected_components(matrix) >>> idx = 1 >>> molIdx = component_list[idx] >>> print("There are {} molecules in the system".format(n_components)) >>> print("Atom {} is part of molecule {}".format(idx, molIdx)) >>> molIdxs = [ i for i in range(len(component_list)) if component_list[i] == molIdx ] >>> print("The following atoms are part of molecule {}: {}".format(molIdx, molIdxs)) """ nAtoms = len(nl.cutoffs) if nl.nupdates <= 0: raise RuntimeError('Must call update(atoms) on your neighborlist first!') if sparse: matrix = sp.dok_matrix((nAtoms, nAtoms), dtype=np.int8) else: matrix = np.zeros((nAtoms, nAtoms), dtype=np.int8) for i in range(nAtoms): for idx in nl.get_neighbors(i)[0]: matrix[i, idx] = 1 return matrix
[docs]class NewPrimitiveNeighborList: """Neighbor list object. Wrapper around neighbor_list and first_neighbors. cutoffs: list of float List of cutoff radii - one for each atom. If the spheres (defined by their cutoff radii) of two atoms overlap, they will be counted as neighbors. skin: float If no atom has moved more than the skin-distance since the last call to the :meth:`~ase.neighborlist.NewPrimitiveNeighborList.update()` method, then the neighbor list can be reused. This will save some expensive rebuilds of the list, but extra neighbors outside the cutoff will be returned. sorted: bool Sort neighbor list. self_interaction: bool Should an atom return itself as a neighbor? bothways: bool Return all neighbors. Default is to return only "half" of the neighbors. Example:: nl = NeighborList([2.3, 1.7]) nl.update(atoms) indices, offsets = nl.get_neighbors(0) """ def __init__(self, cutoffs, skin=0.3, sorted=False, self_interaction=True, bothways=False, use_scaled_positions=False): self.cutoffs = np.asarray(cutoffs) + skin self.skin = skin self.sorted = sorted self.self_interaction = self_interaction self.bothways = bothways self.nupdates = 0 self.use_scaled_positions = use_scaled_positions self.nneighbors = 0 self.npbcneighbors = 0
[docs] def update(self, pbc, cell, positions, numbers=None): """Make sure the list is up to date.""" if self.nupdates == 0: self.build(pbc, cell, positions, numbers=numbers) return True if ((self.pbc != pbc).any() or (self.cell != cell).any() or ((self.positions - positions)**2).sum(1).max() > self.skin**2): self.build(pbc, cell, positions, numbers=numbers) return True return False
[docs] def build(self, pbc, cell, positions, numbers=None): """Build the list. """ self.pbc = np.array(pbc, copy=True) self.cell = np.array(cell, copy=True) self.positions = np.array(positions, copy=True) self.pair_first, self.pair_second, self.offset_vec = \ primitive_neighbor_list( 'ijS', pbc, cell, positions, self.cutoffs, numbers=numbers, self_interaction=self.self_interaction, use_scaled_positions=self.use_scaled_positions) if len(positions) > 0 and not self.bothways: mask = np.logical_or( np.logical_and( self.pair_first <= self.pair_second, (self.offset_vec == 0).all(axis=1) ), np.logical_or( self.offset_vec[:, 0] > 0, np.logical_and( self.offset_vec[:, 0] == 0, np.logical_or( self.offset_vec[:, 1] > 0, np.logical_and( self.offset_vec[:, 1] == 0, self.offset_vec[:, 2] > 0) ) ) ) ) self.pair_first = self.pair_first[mask] self.pair_second = self.pair_second[mask] self.offset_vec = self.offset_vec[mask] if len(positions) > 0 and self.sorted: mask = np.argsort(self.pair_first * len(self.pair_first) + self.pair_second) self.pair_first = self.pair_first[mask] self.pair_second = self.pair_second[mask] self.offset_vec = self.offset_vec[mask] # Compute the index array point to the first neighbor self.first_neigh = first_neighbors(len(positions), self.pair_first) self.nupdates += 1
[docs] def get_neighbors(self, a): """Return neighbors of atom number a. A list of indices and offsets to neighboring atoms is returned. The positions of the neighbor atoms can be calculated like this: >>> indices, offsets = nl.get_neighbors(42) >>> for i, offset in zip(indices, offsets): >>> print(atoms.positions[i] + dot(offset, atoms.get_cell())) Notice that if get_neighbors(a) gives atom b as a neighbor, then get_neighbors(b) will not return a as a neighbor - unless bothways=True was used.""" return (self.pair_second[self.first_neigh[a]:self.first_neigh[a+1]], self.offset_vec[self.first_neigh[a]:self.first_neigh[a+1]])
[docs]class PrimitiveNeighborList: """Neighbor list that works without Atoms objects. This is less fancy, but can be used to avoid conversions between scaled and non-scaled coordinates which may affect cell offsets through rounding errors. """ def __init__(self, cutoffs, skin=0.3, sorted=False, self_interaction=True, bothways=False, use_scaled_positions=False): self.cutoffs = np.asarray(cutoffs) + skin self.skin = skin self.sorted = sorted self.self_interaction = self_interaction self.bothways = bothways self.nupdates = 0 self.use_scaled_positions = use_scaled_positions self.nneighbors = 0 self.npbcneighbors = 0
[docs] def update(self, pbc, cell, coordinates): """Make sure the list is up to date.""" if self.nupdates == 0: self.build(pbc, cell, coordinates) return True if ((self.pbc != pbc).any() or (self.cell != cell).any() or ((self.coordinates - coordinates)**2).sum(1).max() > self.skin**2): self.build(pbc, cell, coordinates) return True return False
[docs] def build(self, pbc, cell, coordinates): """Build the list. Coordinates are taken to be scaled or not according to self.use_scaled_positions. """ self.pbc = pbc = np.array(pbc, copy=True) self.cell = cell = Cell(cell) self.coordinates = coordinates = np.array(coordinates, copy=True) if len(self.cutoffs) != len(coordinates): raise ValueError('Wrong number of cutoff radii: {0} != {1}' .format(len(self.cutoffs), len(coordinates))) if len(self.cutoffs) > 0: rcmax = self.cutoffs.max() else: rcmax = 0.0 if self.use_scaled_positions: positions0 = cell.cartesian_positions(coordinates) else: positions0 = coordinates rcell, op = minkowski_reduce(cell, pbc) positions = wrap_positions(positions0, rcell, pbc=pbc, eps=0) natoms = len(positions) self.nneighbors = 0 self.npbcneighbors = 0 self.neighbors = [np.empty(0, int) for a in range(natoms)] self.displacements = [np.empty((0, 3), int) for a in range(natoms)] self.nupdates += 1 if natoms == 0: return N = [] ircell = np.linalg.pinv(rcell) for i in range(3): if self.pbc[i]: v = ircell[:, i] h = 1 / np.linalg.norm(v) n = int(2 * rcmax / h) + 1 else: n = 0 N.append(n) tree = cKDTree(positions, copy_data=True) offsets = cell.scaled_positions(positions - positions0) offsets = offsets.round().astype(np.int) for n1, n2, n3 in itertools.product(range(0, N[0] + 1), range(-N[1], N[1] + 1), range(-N[2], N[2] + 1)): if n1 == 0 and (n2 < 0 or n2 == 0 and n3 < 0): continue displacement = (n1, n2, n3) @ rcell for a in range(natoms): indices = tree.query_ball_point(positions[a] - displacement, r=self.cutoffs[a] + rcmax) if not len(indices): continue indices = np.array(indices) delta = positions[indices] + displacement - positions[a] cutoffs = self.cutoffs[indices] + self.cutoffs[a] i = indices[np.linalg.norm(delta, axis=1) < cutoffs] if n1 == 0 and n2 == 0 and n3 == 0: if self.self_interaction: i = i[i >= a] else: i = i[i > a] self.nneighbors += len(i) self.neighbors[a] = np.concatenate((self.neighbors[a], i)) disp = (n1, n2, n3) @ op + offsets[i] - offsets[a] self.npbcneighbors += disp.any(1).sum() self.displacements[a] = np.concatenate((self.displacements[a], disp)) if self.bothways: neighbors2 = [[] for a in range(natoms)] displacements2 = [[] for a in range(natoms)] for a in range(natoms): for b, disp in zip(self.neighbors[a], self.displacements[a]): neighbors2[b].append(a) displacements2[b].append(-disp) for a in range(natoms): nbs = np.concatenate((self.neighbors[a], neighbors2[a])) disp = np.array(list(self.displacements[a]) + displacements2[a]) # Force correct type and shape for case of no neighbors: self.neighbors[a] = nbs.astype(int) self.displacements[a] = disp.astype(int).reshape((-1, 3)) if self.sorted: for a, i in enumerate(self.neighbors): mask = (i < a) if mask.any(): j = i[mask] offsets = self.displacements[a][mask] for b, offset in zip(j, offsets): self.neighbors[b] = np.concatenate((self.neighbors[b], [a])) self.displacements[b] = np.concatenate((self.displacements[b], [-offset])) mask = np.logical_not(mask) self.neighbors[a] = self.neighbors[a][mask] self.displacements[a] = self.displacements[a][mask]
[docs] def get_neighbors(self, a): """Return neighbors of atom number a. A list of indices and offsets to neighboring atoms is returned. The positions of the neighbor atoms can be calculated like this:: indices, offsets = nl.get_neighbors(42) for i, offset in zip(indices, offsets): print(atoms.positions[i] + offset @ atoms.get_cell()) Notice that if get_neighbors(a) gives atom b as a neighbor, then get_neighbors(b) will not return a as a neighbor - unless bothways=True was used.""" return self.neighbors[a], self.displacements[a]
[docs]class NeighborList: """Neighbor list object. cutoffs: list of float List of cutoff radii - one for each atom. If the spheres (defined by their cutoff radii) of two atoms overlap, they will be counted as neighbors. See :func:`~ase.neighborlist.natural_cutoffs` for an example on how to get such a list. skin: float If no atom has moved more than the skin-distance since the last call to the :meth:`~ase.neighborlist.NeighborList.update()` method, then the neighbor list can be reused. This will save some expensive rebuilds of the list, but extra neighbors outside the cutoff will be returned. self_interaction: bool Should an atom return itself as a neighbor? bothways: bool Return all neighbors. Default is to return only "half" of the neighbors. primitive: :class:`~ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList` or :class:`~ase.neighborlist.NewPrimitiveNeighborList` class Define which implementation to use. Older and quadratically-scaling :class:`~ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList` or newer and linearly-scaling :class:`~ase.neighborlist.NewPrimitiveNeighborList`. Example:: nl = NeighborList([2.3, 1.7]) nl.update(atoms) indices, offsets = nl.get_neighbors(0) """ def __init__(self, cutoffs, skin=0.3, sorted=False, self_interaction=True, bothways=False, primitive=PrimitiveNeighborList): self.nl = primitive(cutoffs, skin, sorted, self_interaction=self_interaction, bothways=bothways)
[docs] def update(self, atoms): """ See :meth:`ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList.update` or :meth:`ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList.update`. """ return self.nl.update(atoms.pbc, atoms.get_cell(complete=True), atoms.positions)
[docs] def get_neighbors(self, a): """ See :meth:`ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList.get_neighbors` or :meth:`ase.neighborlist.PrimitiveNeighborList.get_neighbors`. """ return self.nl.get_neighbors(a)
[docs] def get_connectivity_matrix(self, sparse=True): """ See :func:`~ase.neighborlist.get_connectivity_matrix`. """ return get_connectivity_matrix(self.nl, sparse)
@property def nupdates(self): """Get number of updates.""" return self.nl.nupdates @property def nneighbors(self): """Get number of neighbors.""" return self.nl.nneighbors @property def npbcneighbors(self): """Get number of pbc neighbors.""" return self.nl.npbcneighbors