Source code for

"""File formats.

This module implements the read(), iread() and write() functions in
For each file format there is a namedtuple (IOFormat) that has the following

* a read(filename, index, **kwargs) generator that will yield Atoms objects
* a write(filename, images) function
* a 'single' boolean (False if multiple configurations is supported)
* a 'acceptsfd' boolean (True if file-descriptors are accepted)

There is a dict 'ioformats' that is filled with IOFormat objects as they are
needed.  The 'initialize()' function will create the IOFormat object by
looking at the all_formats dict and by importing the correct read/write
functions from the correct module.  The 'single' and 'acceptsfd' bools are
parsed from two-charcter string in the all_formats dict below.


The xyz format is implemented in the ase/io/ file which has a
read_xyz() generator and a write_xyz() function.


import collections
import functools
import inspect
import os
import sys

from ase.atoms import Atoms
from ase.utils import import_module, basestring, PurePath
from ase.parallel import parallel_function, parallel_generator

class UnknownFileTypeError(Exception):

IOFormat = collections.namedtuple('IOFormat',
                                  'read, write, single, acceptsfd, isbinary')
ioformats = {}  # will be filled at run-time

# 1=single, +=multiple, F=accepts a file-descriptor, S=needs a file-name str,
# B=like F, but opens in binary mode
all_formats = {
    'abinit': ('ABINIT input file', '1F'),
    'aims': ('FHI-aims geometry file', '1S'),
    'aims-output': ('FHI-aims output', '+S'),
    'bundletrajectory': ('ASE bundle trajectory', '+S'),
    'castep-castep': ('CASTEP output file', '+F'),
    'castep-cell': ('CASTEP geom file', '1F'),
    'castep-geom': ('CASTEP trajectory file', '+F'),
    'castep-md': ('CASTEP molecular dynamics file', '+F'),
    'castep-phonon': ('CASTEP phonon file', '1F'),
    'cfg': ('AtomEye configuration', '1F'),
    'cif': ('CIF-file', '+F'),
    'cmdft': ('CMDFT-file', '1F'),
    'crystal': ('Crystal fort.34 format', '1S'),
    'cube': ('CUBE file', '1F'),
    'dacapo': ('Dacapo netCDF output file', '1F'),
    'dacapo-text': ('Dacapo text output', '1F'),
    'db': ('ASE SQLite database file', '+S'),
    'dftb': ('DftbPlus input file', '1S'),
    'dlp4': ('DL_POLY_4 CONFIG file', '1F'),
    'dmol-arc': ('DMol3 arc file', '+S'),
    'dmol-car': ('DMol3 structure file', '1S'),
    'dmol-incoor': ('DMol3 structure file', '1S'),
    'elk': ('ELK atoms definition', '1S'),
    'eon': ('EON reactant.con file', '1F'),
    'eps': ('Encapsulated Postscript', '1S'),
    'espresso-in': ('Quantum espresso in file', '1F'),
    'espresso-out': ('Quantum espresso out file', '+F'),
    'etsf': ('ETSF format', '1S'),
    'exciting': ('exciting input', '1S'),
    'extxyz': ('Extended XYZ file', '+F'),
    'findsym': ('FINDSYM-format', '+F'),
    'gaussian': ('Gaussian com (input) file', '1S'),
    'gaussian-out': ('Gaussian output file', '1F'),
    'gen': ('DFTBPlus GEN format', '1F'),
    'gif': ('Graphics interchange format', '+S'),
    'gpaw-out': ('GPAW text output', '+F'),
    'gpw': ('GPAW restart-file', '1S'),
    'gromacs': ('Gromacs coordinates', '1S'),
    'gromos': ('Gromos96 geometry file', '1F'),
    'html': ('X3DOM HTML', '1F'),
    'iwm': ('?', '1F'),
    'json': ('ASE JSON database file', '+F'),
    'jsv': ('JSV file format', '1F'),
    'lammps-dump': ('LAMMPS dump file', '+F'),
    'lammps-data': ('LAMMPS data file', '1F'),
    'magres': ('MAGRES ab initio NMR data file', '1F'),
    'mol': ('MDL Molfile', '1F'),
    'mp4': ('MP4 animation', '+S'),
    'mustem': ('muSTEM xtl file', '1F'),
    'netcdftrajectory': ('AMBER NetCDF trajectory file', '+S'),
    'nomad-json': ('JSON from Nomad archive', '+F'),
    'nwchem': ('NWChem input file', '1F'),
    'octopus': ('Octopus input file', '1F'),
    'proteindatabank': ('Protein Data Bank', '+F'),
    'png': ('Portable Network Graphics', '1S'),
    'postgresql': ('ASE PostgreSQL database file', '+S'),
    'pov': ('Persistance of Vision', '1S'),
    'py': ('Python file', '+F'),
    'qbox': ('QBOX output file', '+F'),
    'res': ('SHELX format', '1S'),
    'sdf': ('SDF format', '1F'),
    'struct': ('WIEN2k structure file', '1S'),
    'struct_out': ('SIESTA STRUCT file', '1F'),
    'traj': ('ASE trajectory', '+B'),
    'trj': ('Old ASE pickle trajectory', '+S'),
    'turbomole': ('TURBOMOLE coord file', '1F'),
    'turbomole-gradient': ('TURBOMOLE gradient file', '+F'),
    'v-sim': ('V_Sim ascii file', '1F'),
    'vasp': ('VASP POSCAR/CONTCAR file', '1F'),
    'vasp-out': ('VASP OUTCAR file', '+F'),
    'vasp-xdatcar': ('VASP XDATCAR file', '+S'),
    'vasp-xml': ('VASP vasprun.xml file', '+F'),
    'vti': ('VTK XML Image Data', '1F'),
    'vtu': ('VTK XML Unstructured Grid', '1F'),
    'x3d': ('X3D', '1S'),
    'xsd': ('Materials Studio file', '1F'),
    'xsf': ('XCrySDen Structure File', '+F'),
    'xyz': ('XYZ-file', '+F')}

# Special cases:
format2modulename = {
    'aims-output': 'aims',
    'dmol-arc': 'dmol',
    'dmol-car': 'dmol',
    'dmol-incoor': 'dmol',
    'castep-castep': 'castep',
    'castep-cell': 'castep',
    'castep-geom': 'castep',
    'castep-md': 'castep',
    'castep-phonon': 'castep',
    'dacapo-text': 'dacapo',
    'dlp4': 'dlp4',
    'espresso-in': 'espresso',
    'espresso-out': 'espresso',
    'gaussian-out': 'gaussian',
    'gif': 'animation',
    'html': 'x3d',
    'json': 'db',
    'lammps-dump': 'lammpsrun',
    'lammps-data': 'lammpsdata',
    'mp4': 'animation',
    'postgresql': 'db',
    'struct': 'wien2k',
    'struct_out': 'siesta',
    'traj': 'trajectory',
    'trj': 'pickletrajectory',
    'turbomole-gradient': 'turbomole',
    'vasp-out': 'vasp',
    'vasp-xdatcar': 'vasp',
    'vasp-xml': 'vasp',
    'vti': 'vtkxml',
    'vtu': 'vtkxml'}

extension2format = {
    'ascii': 'v-sim',
    'car': 'dmol-car',
    'castep': 'castep-castep',
    'cell': 'castep-cell',
    'com': 'gaussian',
    'con': 'eon',
    'config': 'dlp4',
    'exi': 'exciting',
    'f34': 'crystal',
    '34': 'crystal',
    'g96': 'gromos',
    'geom': 'castep-geom',
    'gro': 'gromacs',
    'log': 'gaussian-out',
    'md': 'castep-md',
    'nw': 'nwchem',
    'out': 'espresso-out',
    'pwo': 'espresso-out',
    'pwi': 'espresso-in',
    'pdb': 'proteindatabank',
    'shelx': 'res',
    'in': 'aims',
    'poscar': 'vasp',
    'phonon': 'castep-phonon',
    'xtl': 'mustem'}

netcdfconventions2format = {
    '': 'etsf',
    'AMBER': 'netcdftrajectory'

def initialize(format):
    """Import read and write functions."""
    if format in ioformats:
        return  # already done

    _format = format.replace('-', '_')
    module_name = format2modulename.get(format, _format)

        module = import_module('' + module_name)
    except ImportError as err:
        raise ValueError('File format not recognized: %s.  Error: %s'
                         % (format, err))

    read = getattr(module, 'read_' + _format, None)
    write = getattr(module, 'write_' + _format, None)

    if read and not inspect.isgeneratorfunction(read):
        read = functools.partial(wrap_read_function, read)
    if not read and not write:
        raise ValueError('File format not recognized: ' + format)
    code = all_formats[format][1]
    single = code[0] == '1'
    assert code[1] in 'BFS'
    acceptsfd = code[1] != 'S'
    isbinary = code[1] == 'B'
    ioformats[format] = IOFormat(read, write, single, acceptsfd, isbinary)

def get_ioformat(format):
    """Initialize and return IOFormat tuple."""
    return ioformats[format]

def get_compression(filename):
    Parse any expected file compression from the extension of a filename.
    Return the filename without the extension, and the extension. Recognises
    ``.gz``, ``.bz2``, ``.xz``.

    >>> get_compression('H2O.pdb.gz')
    ('H2O.pdb', 'gz')
    >>> get_compression('crystal.cif')
    ('crystal.cif', None)

    filename: str
        Full filename including extension.

    (root, extension): (str, str or None)
        Filename split into root without extension, and the extension
        indicating compression format. Will not split if compression
        is not recognised.
    # Update if anything is added
    valid_compression = ['gz', 'bz2', 'xz']

    # Use stdlib as it handles most edge cases
    root, compression = os.path.splitext(filename)

    # extension keeps the '.' so remember to remove it
    if compression.strip('.') in valid_compression:
        return root, compression.strip('.')
        return filename, None

def open_with_compression(filename, mode='r'):
    Wrapper around builtin `open` that will guess compression of a file
    from the filename and open it for reading or writing as if it were
    a standard file.

    Implemented for ``gz``(gzip), ``bz2``(bzip2) and ``xz``(lzma). Either
    Python 3 or the ``backports.lzma`` module are required for ``xz``.

    Supported modes are:
       * 'r', 'rt', 'w', 'wt' for text mode read and write.
       * 'rb, 'wb' for binary read and write.
    Depending on the Python version, you may get errors trying to write the
    wrong string type to the file.

    filename: str
        Path to the file to open, including any extensions that indicate
        the compression used.
    mode: str
        Mode to open the file, same as for builtin ``open``, e.g 'r', 'w'.

    fd: file
        File-like object open with the specified mode.

    if sys.version_info[0] > 2:
        # Compressed formats sometimes default to binary, so force
        # text mode in Python 3.
        if mode == 'r':
            mode = 'rt'
        elif mode == 'w':
            mode = 'wt'
        elif mode == 'a':
            mode = 'at'
        # The version of gzip in Anaconda Python 2 on Windows forcibly
        # adds a 'b', so strip any 't' and let the string conversions
        # be carried out implicitly by Python.
        mode = mode.strip('t')

    root, compression = get_compression(filename)

    if compression is None:
        return open(filename, mode)
    elif compression == 'gz':
        import gzip
        fd =, mode=mode)
    elif compression == 'bz2':
        import bz2
        if hasattr(bz2, 'open'):
            # Python 3 only
            fd =, mode=mode)
            # Python 2
            fd = bz2.BZ2File(filename, mode=mode)
    elif compression == 'xz':
            from lzma import open as lzma_open
        except ImportError:
            from backports.lzma import open as lzma_open
        fd = lzma_open(filename, mode)
        fd = open(filename, mode)

    return fd

def wrap_read_function(read, filename, index=None, **kwargs):
    """Convert read-function to generator."""
    if index is None:
        yield read(filename, **kwargs)
        for atoms in read(filename, index, **kwargs):
            yield atoms

[docs]def write(filename, images, format=None, parallel=True, append=False, **kwargs): """Write Atoms object(s) to file. filename: str or file Name of the file to write to or a file descriptor. The name '-' means standard output. images: Atoms object or list of Atoms objects A single Atoms object or a list of Atoms objects. format: str Used to specify the file-format. If not given, the file-format will be taken from suffix of the filename. parallel: bool Default is to write on master only. Use parallel=False to write from all slaves. append: bool Default is to open files in 'w' or 'wb' mode, overwriting existing files. In some cases opening the file in 'a' or 'ab' mode (appending) is usefull, e.g. writing trajectories or saving multiple Atoms objects in one file. WARNING: If the file format does not support multiple entries without additional keywords/headers, files created using 'append=True' might not be readable by any program! They will nevertheless be written without error message. The use of additional keywords is format specific.""" if isinstance(filename, basestring): filename = os.path.expanduser(filename) fd = None if filename == '-': fd = sys.stdout filename = None elif format is None: format = filetype(filename, read=False) else: fd = filename filename = None format = format or 'json' # default is json io = get_ioformat(format) _write(filename, fd, format, io, images, parallel=parallel, append=append, **kwargs)
@parallel_function def _write(filename, fd, format, io, images, parallel=None, append=False, **kwargs): if isinstance(images, Atoms): images = [images] if io.single: if len(images) > 1: raise ValueError('{}-format can only store 1 Atoms object.' .format(format)) images = images[0] if io.write is None: raise ValueError("Can't write to {}-format".format(format)) # Special case for json-format: if format == 'json' and len(images) > 1: if filename is not None: io.write(filename, images, **kwargs) return raise ValueError("Can't write more than one image to file-descriptor" 'using json-format.') if io.acceptsfd: open_new = (fd is None) if open_new: mode = 'wb' if io.isbinary else 'w' if append: mode = mode.replace('w', 'a') fd = open_with_compression(filename, mode) io.write(fd, images, **kwargs) if open_new: fd.close() else: if fd is not None: raise ValueError("Can't write {}-format to file-descriptor" .format(format)) if 'append' in io.write.__code__.co_varnames: io.write(filename, images, append=append, **kwargs) elif append: raise ValueError("Cannot append to {}-format, write-function " "does not support the append keyword.".format(format)) else: io.write(filename, images, **kwargs)
[docs]def read(filename, index=None, format=None, parallel=True, **kwargs): """Read Atoms object(s) from file. filename: str or file Name of the file to read from or a file descriptor. index: int, slice or str The last configuration will be returned by default. Examples: * ``index=0``: first configuration * ``index=-2``: second to last * ``index=':'`` or ``index=slice(None)``: all * ``index='-3:`` or ``index=slice(-3, None)``: three last * ``index='::2`` or ``index=slice(0, None, 2)``: even * ``index='1::2`` or ``index=slice(1, None, 2)``: odd format: str Used to specify the file-format. If not given, the file-format will be guessed by the *filetype* function. parallel: bool Default is to read on master and broadcast to slaves. Use parallel=False to read on all slaves. Many formats allow on open file-like object to be passed instead of ``filename``. In this case the format cannot be auto-decected, so the ``format`` argument should be explicitly given.""" if isinstance(filename, PurePath): filename = str(filename) if isinstance(index, basestring): try: index = string2index(index) except ValueError: pass filename, index = parse_filename(filename, index) if index is None: index = -1 format = format or filetype(filename) io = get_ioformat(format) if isinstance(index, (slice, basestring)): return list(_iread(filename, index, format, io, parallel=parallel, **kwargs)) else: return next(_iread(filename, slice(index, None), format, io, parallel=parallel, **kwargs))
[docs]def iread(filename, index=None, format=None, parallel=True, **kwargs): """Iterator for reading Atoms objects from file. Works as the `read` function, but yields one Atoms object at a time instead of all at once.""" if isinstance(index, basestring): index = string2index(index) filename, index = parse_filename(filename, index) if index is None or index == ':': index = slice(None, None, None) if not isinstance(index, (slice, basestring)): index = slice(index, (index + 1) or None) format = format or filetype(filename) io = get_ioformat(format) for atoms in _iread(filename, index, format, io, parallel=parallel, **kwargs): yield atoms
@parallel_generator def _iread(filename, index, format, io, parallel=None, full_output=False, **kwargs): if isinstance(filename, basestring): filename = os.path.expanduser(filename) if not raise ValueError("Can't read from {}-format".format(format)) if io.single: start = index.start assert start is None or start == 0 or start == -1 args = () else: args = (index,) must_close_fd = False if isinstance(filename, basestring): if io.acceptsfd: mode = 'rb' if io.isbinary else 'r' fd = open_with_compression(filename, mode) must_close_fd = True else: fd = filename else: assert io.acceptsfd fd = filename # Make sure fd is closed in case loop doesn't finish: try: for dct in, *args, **kwargs): if not isinstance(dct, dict): dct = {'atoms': dct} if full_output: yield dct else: yield dct['atoms'] finally: if must_close_fd: fd.close() def parse_filename(filename, index=None): if not isinstance(filename, basestring): return filename, index extension = os.path.basename(filename) if '@' not in extension: return filename, index newindex = None newfilename, newindex = filename.rsplit('@', 1) if isinstance(index, slice): return newfilename, index try: newindex = string2index(newindex) except ValueError: pass return newfilename, newindex def string2index(string): if ':' not in string: return int(string) i = [] for s in string.split(':'): if s == '': i.append(None) else: i.append(int(s)) i += (3 - len(i)) * [None] return slice(*i) def filetype(filename, read=True, guess=True): """Try to guess the type of the file. First, special signatures in the filename will be checked for. If that does not identify the file type, then the first 2000 bytes of the file will be read and analysed. Turn off this second part by using read=False. Can be used from the command-line also:: $ ase info filename ... """ ext = None if isinstance(filename, basestring): if os.path.isdir(filename): if os.path.basename(os.path.normpath(filename)) == 'states': return 'eon' return 'bundletrajectory' if filename.startswith('postgres'): return 'postgresql' # strip any compression extensions that can be read root, compression = get_compression(filename) basename = os.path.basename(root) if basename == 'inp': return 'octopus' if basename.endswith('.nomad.json'): return 'nomad-json' if '.' in basename: ext = os.path.splitext(basename)[1].strip('.').lower() if ext in ['xyz', 'cube', 'json', 'cif']: return ext if 'POSCAR' in basename or 'CONTCAR' in basename: return 'vasp' if 'OUTCAR' in basename: return 'vasp-out' if 'XDATCAR' in basename: return 'vasp-xdatcar' if 'vasp' in basename and basename.endswith('.xml'): return 'vasp-xml' if basename == 'coord': return 'turbomole' if basename == 'f34': return 'crystal' if basename == '34': return 'crystal' if basename == 'gradient': return 'turbomole-gradient' if basename.endswith('I_info'): return 'cmdft' if basename == 'atoms.dat': return 'iwm' if 'CONFIG' in basename: return 'dlp4' if not read: if ext is None: raise UnknownFileTypeError('Could not guess file type') return extension2format.get(ext, ext) fd = open_with_compression(filename, 'rb') else: fd = filename if fd is sys.stdin: return 'json' data = if fd is not filename: fd.close() else: if len(data) == 0: raise UnknownFileTypeError('Empty file: ' + filename) if data.startswith(b'CDF'): # We can only recognize these if we actually have the netCDF4 module. try: import netCDF4 except ImportError: pass else: nc = netCDF4.Dataset(filename) if 'Conventions' in nc.ncattrs(): if nc.Conventions in netcdfconventions2format: return netcdfconventions2format[nc.Conventions] else: raise UnknownFileTypeError( "Unsupported NetCDF convention: " "'{}'".format(nc.Conventions)) else: raise UnknownFileTypeError("NetCDF file does not have a " "'Conventions' attribute.") for format, magic in [('traj', b'- of UlmASE-Trajectory'), ('traj', b'AFFormatASE-Trajectory'), ('gpw', b'- of UlmGPAW'), ('gpw', b'AFFormatGPAW'), ('trj', b'PickleTrajectory'), ('turbomole', b'$coord'), ('turbomole-gradient', b'$grad'), ('dftb', b'Geometry')]: if data.startswith(magic): return format for format, magic in [('gpaw-out', b' ___ ___ ___ _ _ _'), ('espresso-in', b'\n&system'), ('espresso-in', b'\n&SYSTEM'), ('espresso-out', b'Program PWSCF'), ('aims-output', b'Invoking FHI-aims ...'), ('lammps-dump', b'\nITEM: TIMESTEP\n'), ('qbox', b':simulation xmlns:'), ('xsf', b'\nANIMSTEPS'), ('xsf', b'\nCRYSTAL'), ('xsf', b'\nSLAB'), ('xsf', b'\nPOLYMER'), ('xsf', b'\nMOLECULE'), ('xsf', b'\nATOMS'), ('dacapo-text', b'&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&\n')]: if magic in data: return format format = extension2format.get(ext) if format is None and guess: format = ext if format is None: # Do quick xyz check: lines = data.splitlines() if lines and lines[0].strip().isdigit(): return 'xyz' raise UnknownFileTypeError('Could not guess file type') return format